## • Objective

This section gives the complete introduction to CFD and various aspects of it. Guiding the individual to become independent in fluid-flow and heat-transfer analysis.

## • Key Learning:

Student will understand the meaning of ‘learning just softwares is not CFD’. He/she will be able to draw conclusion out of results and its physical meaning

## • Application:

All the functional areas of CFD. Mainly on aerodynamics of cars, air crafts, turbines etc. few example will be covered on wakes, turbulence, pressure drop, frictional losses, turbochargers etc.

## • Topics:

Introduction and fundamentals, Conservation of mass; Conservation of linear momentum: Navier-Stokes equation; Conservation of Energy; General scalar transport equation, Forward difference, backward difference, Central difference; Polynomial Approximations; Finite-Differences on Non-Uniform Grids and Uniform Errors: 1-D; Von Neumann examples: 1st order linear convection/wave equation; Energy Method; FD schemes for 2D problems (Laplace, Poisson and Helmholtz eqns.); Implicit and Explicit Methods, Finite Difference Method, Finite Volume Method, Interpolations and differentiations such as Upwind interpolation (UDS), Linear Interpolation (CDS), Quadratic Upwind interpolation (QUICK), Higher order (interpolation) schemes, Time marching method and ODE, Runge-Kutta Methods, Application of finite volume methods to simple equations explanation of how a CFD software works, Different types of grids; Structured grid and Unstructured grid Generation, Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations (Discretization of the convective and viscous terms, Discretization of the pressure term, Conservation principles, Pressure Correction Method, Stream function-Vorticity Methods, Crank Nicolson Method), laminar CFD calculations, Turbulent CFD Calculations, CFD with heat transfer, compressible flow CFD calculations, open-channel flow CFD calculations, impact of grid size on accuracy of results (Grid Independent Studies), Stability, convergence and consistency, CFL condition, Methods for Incompressible Flows (pressure Correction Method, SIMPLE Algorithm, other variants of simple algorithm such as SimpleC, SimpleR etc.), compressible and incompressible solvers, review of boundary conditions from Fluid dynamics and heat transfer from CFD point of view, significance of these boundary conditions on CFD analysis, mesh quality parameters and their impact on numerical solution, Introduction to Turbulence Modelling, General Properties of turbulent quantities, Reynolds average Navier stokes (RANS) equation, Necessity of turbulence modelling; Different types of turbulence model, Eddy viscosity models, Mixing length model, Turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation, The k-epsilon model, Spalart allmaras model, k-omega model and near wall flow modelling, wall functions, Reynolds stress model (RSM),Large eddy Simulation (LES),Direct numerical simulation (DNS)